Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Another Top 15 Beautiful Malaysian Churches

Before this, I made a top ten list of the most beautiful churches in Malaysia according to my own personal humble opinion. However, there are many other Malaysian churches that did not make the list. Although we may not have grand fancy churches like Paris' Notre Dame or London's St. Peter's, we do have some quaint ones here. In case you don't see any of your own favourite ones on this list, make sure to check out the the separate list of Top 10 Most Beautiful Churches in Malaysia. 

1. Church Of Our Lady Of Lourdes , Ipoh.

2. St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Ipoh 

3. St. Michael's Church, Ipoh

4. St. John's Church, Ipoh 

5. St. Anthony's Church, Teluk Intan

6. Church of Visitation, Seremban 

7. Church of Our Lady Lourdes, Klang

8. Church of Holy Name of Jesus in Balik Pulau

9. Church of Immaculate Conception, Johor Bharu 

10. Bandar Sri Aman Church, Sri Aman

11. St. Peter's Church, Melaka

12. Wesley Methodist Church, Penang

13. Church of the Holy Name of Mary, Permatang Tinggi

14. Church of St. Mary, Ayer Salak

15. St. Joseph's Church, Batu Gajah

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Places in Malaysia That Have Alternative British Names

1. Bayan Lepas - Jamestown

2. Penang - Prince of Wales Island

3. Seberang Perai - Province Wellesley

4. Bukit Larut - Maxwell Hill

5. Kuala Sepetang - Port Weld

6. Teluk Intan - Anson Bay

7. Klang - Port Swettenham

8. Labuan - Victoria

9. Kota Kinabalu - Jesselton

10. Tenom - Port Birch

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Radio Stations in Malaysia With Frequencies

In Malaysia, there are four companies that run most radio stations. There is Radio Television Malaysia (RTM), which is the government-owned public broadcaster. Then, there is Astro Radio that is owned by Astro Holdings Sdn Bhd. Also, there is Media Prima, a fully integrated media company. Last but not least, there is Star Media Group Berhad. There are dozens of radio stations airing in Malaysia, and here are some that are available nationwide. 

A) Radio Televisyen Malaysia

1) Nasional FM

A Malay general-service, national radio station which is the first Malaysia's radio station to broadcast in FM stereo since being launch on 20 June 1975. 

  • Johor Bahru, Singapore, Riau - 101.7
  • Melaka, North Johor - 96.6
  • Negeri Sembilan - 91.7
  • Klang Valley - 88.5
  • Selangor, Central Pahang - 95.3
  • Kota Bharu - 101.9
  • Jeli - 89.2
  • Kuala Terengganu - 91.7
  • Besut, North Terengganu - 98.8
  • North Perak - 89.7
  • Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang - 100.5

2) TraXX FM

The country's first English radio station that started broadcasting in 1 January 1950 as the Blue Network.

  • Tangkak - 97.4
  • Johor Bahru - 102.9
  • Bukit Tinggi - 92.9
  • Baling - 91.7
  • Gurun - 98.7
  • Kota Bharu - 104.7
  • Jeli - 90.8
  • Bukit Bakar - 98.5
  • Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, West Pahang - 90.3 or 100.1
  • Melaka - 97.4
  • Negeri Sembilan, South Selangor - 88.7
  • Kuantan - 105.3
  • Jerantut - 89.9
  • Taiping - 105.3
  • Ipoh - 90.1
  • Pulau Pinang - 98.7
  • Kota Kinabalu - 105.3
  • Kota Belud - 102.5
  • Bintulu - 98.5
  • Miri - 104.5
  • Kuala Terengganu - 89.7
  • Dungun - 98.9
  • Besut - 97.0

3) Ai FM

Malaysia's first Chinese radio station that has been on the air since 1934.

  • North Johor, Melaka - 100.4
  • South Johor - 104.9
  • Negeri Sembilan, South Selangor - 89.7
  • Kuala Lumpur, Selangor - 89.3
  • West Pahang - 106.7
  • Kuantan - 106.1
  • Kota Bharu - 105.7
  • Jeli - 91.6
  • Kuala Terengganu - 90.5
  • Besut - 97.8
  • Jerantut - 90.7
  • Ipoh - 92.1
  • Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang - 101.3

4) Minnal FM

 The first 24-hour Indian language broadcast service in the world and Malaysia's first Tamil radio channel. 

  • North Johor, Melaka - 103.3
  • South Johor - 101.1
  • Negeri Sembilan, South Selangor - 90.5
  • Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Central Pahang - 96.3
  • Kuantan - 103.3, 
  • Kota Bharu, Machang - 106.7
  • Jeli - 92.2
  • Kuala Terengganu - 87.9
  • Jerantut, Terengganu - 91.9
  • Besut - 95.3
  • Ipoh - 96.9
  • South Perak - 98.9
  • Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang - 96.7
  • North Kedah, North Perak - 89.7
  • North Kelantan - 100.9

5) Radio Klasik FM

Broadcasts Malay retro music. 

  • Gunung Pulai - 106.7
  • Melaka - 93.6
  • Negeri Sembilan, South Selangor - 87.9
  • Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, West Pahang - 98.3
  • Kuantan - 107.9
  • Kota Bharu - 96.5
  • Kuala Terengganu - 92.5
  • Ipoh - 88.3
  • Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang - 94.9

B) Astro Radio

1) Era

Mainly plays Malay music but also a mixture of international hit songs as well. 

  • Klang Valley - 103.3
  • Pulau Pinang - 103.6
  • Taiping - 95.2
  • Melaka - 90.3
  • Johor Bahru - 104.5
  • Seremban - 103.6
  • Kuantan - 98.0
  • Kota Bharu - 103.3
  • Kuala Terengganu - 102.8
  • Kuching - 96.1
  • Kota Kinabalu - 102.4

2) Hitz. FM

 Malaysia's leading English-language station airing contemporary English hits with approximately two million listeners.

  • Klang Valley - 94.5
  • Pulau Pinang - 91.0
  • Ipoh - 94.3
  • Taiping - 91.3
  • Melaka - 91.1
  • Johor Bahru - 99.1
  • Seremban - 94.2
  • Kuantan - 94.1
  • Kota Bharu - 94.6
  • Kuala Kuching - 97.7
  • Kota Kinabalu - 101.6

3) MY FM

A Chinese station catering for younger listeners. 

  • Klang Valley - 101.8
  • Pulau Pinang - 99.7
  • Ipoh - 100.6
  • Taiping - 100.2
  • Melaka - 106.4
  • Johor Bahru - 95.4
  • Seremban - 100.6
  • Kuantan - 101.1
  • Kota Bharu - 102.3
  • Kuala Terengganu - 101.2
  • Kuching - 96.9
  • Kota Kinabalu - 104.0

4) THR Raaga

Starting out as the first privately owned bilingual Malay and English language radio station in the country, it provided stiff competition to other stations in both Malaysia and Singapore. Today, it is Southeast Asia's leading Tamil radio station. 

  • Klang Valley, South Pulau Pinang - 99.3
  • Negeri Sembilan - 101.5
  • Central Perak - 97.9
  • North Pulau Pinang, Kedah - 102.4
  • Pulau Langkawi - 101.9

5) THR Gegar

This is the former Malay slot of THR which has since split and is now its own station but only airs in the East Coast of the Peninsular while Raaga airs in the West Coast. 

  • Kuantan - 88.8 
  • Kuala Terengganu - 106.8 
  • Kota Bharu - 88.1 

6) Mix FM

An English language station that caters to urban young adults by playing contemporary hits from the 90s to present day.

  • Klang Valley - 92.9
  • Pulau Pinang - 92.8
  • Ipoh - 92.7
  • Taiping - 93.6
  • Melaka - 93.0
  • Johor Bahru - 97.6
  • Seremban - 95.0
  • Kuantan - 93.2
  • Kota Bharu - 92.8
  • Kuala Terengganu - 98.3
  • Kuching - 95.3
  • Kota Kinabalu - 100.8

7) Lite FM

An oldies station that mainly airs songs from the 1960's to the 1980's targeting a more mature audience, although it occasionally plays contemporary hits. 

  • Klang Valley - 105.7
  • Pulau Pinang - 104.4
  • Ipoh - 101.5
  • Taiping - 89.3
  • Melaka - 92.2
  • Johor Bahru - 104.3
  • Seremban - 104.6
  • Kuantan - 104.7
  • Kota Bharu - 104.3
  • Kuala Terengganu - 105.9
  • Kuching - 100.1
  • Kota Kinabalu - 103.2

8) Sinar fm

A Malay station that focuses on mature listeners and plays classic music from both local and international artists.

  • Klang Valley - 96.7
  • Pulau Pinang - 97.1
  • Ipoh - 96.9
  • Kuantan - 97.2
  • Kota Bharu - 93.8
  • Taiping - 96.4
  • Seremban - 96.9
  • Melaka - 96.0
  • Johor Bahru, Singapore - 87.8
  • Terengganu - 97.5
  • Kota Kinabalu - 104.9
  • Kuching - 102.1

9) Melody FM

Mainly plays Chinese hits from 1970's to the 2000's for more mature listeners. 

  • Klang Valley - 103.0
  • Pulau Pinang - 106.5
  • Ipoh - 98.5
  • Kuantan - 100.0
  • Kota Bahru - 99.8
  • Taiping - 104.9
  • Seremban - 97.9
  • Melaka/North Johor - 107.3
  • Central Johor - 98.4
  • Johor Baru - 103.3
  • Terengganu - 104.0
  • Kuching - 103.7
  • Kota Kinabalu - 98.6

C) Star Publications 

1) Suria FM

A Malay station that plays songs from the 80's right down to contemporary hits. 

  • Klang Valley - 105.3
  • Ipoh - 96.0
  • Taiping - 91.7
  • Kuantan - 96.1
  • Melaka, North Johor - 88.5
  • Seremban - 107.0
  • Johor Baru - 101.4
  • Kota Kinabalu - 105.9
  • Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang - 106.9
  • Kuala Terengganu - 102.4
  • Kota Bharu - 106.1

2) 988 FM

A Chinese language station for urban and suburban professional adult listeners.

  • Kedah, Perlis - 96.1
  • Pulau Pinang - 94.5
  • Pulau Langkawi - 96.1
  • Taiping - 101
  • Ipoh - 98.8
  • Pahang - 90.4
  • Negeri Sembilan - 93.3
  • North Johor, Melaka - 98.2
  • South Johor, Singapore - 99.9

D) Media Prima

1) Hot FM

 Mainly broadcast in Malay, the station also plays a mix of Indonesian and English songs as well. 

  • Klang Valley - 97.6
  • Ipoh - 104.5
  • Pulau Pinang - 88.2
  • Alor Setar - 88.2
  • Melaka - 104.3
  • Johor Bahru - 90.1
  • Kota Kinabalu - 87.7
  • Kuching - 94.3
  • Kuala Terengganu - 105.0
  • Kuantan - 92.4

2) Kool FM

  • Klang Valley - 101.3 FM
  • Penang Island - 90.2 FM
  • Kuala Terengganu - 93.6 FM
  • Kota Bharu - 88.6 FM
  • Alor Setar - 107.3 FM

3) Fly FM

Mainly an English language channel that focuses on teenage and young adult listeners.

  • Klang Valley - 95.8
  • Negeri Sembilan - 98.6
  • Ipoh - 87.9
  • Penang - 89.9
  • Melaka - 94.0
  • Johor - 94.0

3) One FM

A Chinese station playing contemporary hits. 

  • Ipoh, Central Perak & Kuala Kangsar - 87.6
  • Penang, Kedah and Taipin - MHz
  • Johor Bahru - 105.3
  • Klang Valley and South Perak  - 88.1
  • Melaka and North Johor - 88.1 
  • Seremban - 88.3 
  • Kota Kinabalu - 95.7 
  • Kuching - 98.3 
  • Kuantan, South Terengganu and Mersing - 100.4 

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Literature in English (2205): Exam Format, Answer Guidelines and Literary Texts

Back in my secondary school days, I was so sad that my school did not offer the Literature in English for SPM. It is funny how my teachers used to talk on the importance of English in Malaysia today and that getting an A1 (not A+ yet) for the subject is not enough. If that is true, then why didn't they introduce this subject? Maybe it was because my school was, and still is, a full-fledged science stream school. However, having minored in literature at university, I find that it has helped me explore territories that I never dared to face before. Literature taught me to be outspoken and to become an active learner rather than a passive one that just listens to lectures. This fed into my natural inquisitive and curious nature. As a film and novel lover, I came to like literature very easily as well. Enough about me. This is the current literary texts and examination format that is applicable until the year 2010, though I hear it is still used until today.


Fahrenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury)
Fasting, Feasting (Anita Desai)
Holes (Louis Sachar)

Julius Caesar (William Shakespeare)
The Lion and the Jewel (Wole Soyinka)
An Inspector Calls (J.B. Priestly)

Short Story
Naukar (Anya Sitaram)
Cinderella Girl (Vivien Alcoc)
The Landlady (Roald Dahl)
A Common Story (Kassim Ahmad)
Neighbours (Robert Raymer)
Harrison Bergeren (Kurt Vonnegut Jr. )

Theme: Relationships
Tonight I Can Write (Pablo Neruda)
Ways of Love (Chung Yee Chong)
A Prayer for My Daughter (Yeats)
The Way Things Are (Roger McGough)
For My Old Amah (Wong Phui Nam)
How Do I Love Thee? (Elizabeth Barret Browning)

Theme: Perceptions of Self
Birches (Robert Frost)
I Am (John Clare)
This Is A Photograph of Me (Margaret Atwood)
Waiting to Go On (Hugo Williams)
Daring Tears (Craig Romkema)
The Traveller (Muhammad hj Salleh)

Theme: Conflicts
Dulce et Decorum Est (Wilfred Owe)
The Man He Killed (Thomas Hardy)
Death of A Rainforest (Cecil Rajendra)
The War Against Trees (Stanley Kunitz)
A Quarrel Between Day and Night (Omar Mohd Noor)
"Crabbed age and youth cannot live together "(Shakespeare)


Candidates will be asked to choose one question from each component (novel/drama/short story/poem).

Section A:
There are 6 short stories to be studied. Only 4 will be selected for testing each year. Each short story will be tested individually but the candidate is required to answer ONE out of the four questions.

Section B:
There are 3 novels to be studied. All 3 will be selected for testing each year. Each novel will be tested individually but the candidate is required to answer ONE out of the three questions.

Section C:
There are 3 plays to be studied. All 3 will be selected for testing each year. Each play will be tested individually but the candidate is required to answer ONE out of the three questions.

Section D:
There are 3 themes to be studied. All 3 themes will be selected for testing each year. Each theme will be tested individually but the candidate is required to answer ONE out of the three questions.

Candidates may answer more than one question for each component. The examiner will chose the highest mark the candidate has attained for ONE question. A single question comprises of three sub-questions. They are to be considered as a whole and not to be counted as separated questions. No extra marks will be given for any additional answers. No extra marks will be awarded beyond the maximum marks cited.Illogical/irrelevant information may be ignored by the examiner.

Section A: Short Stories [25 marks]

I. Text Comprehension. (Maximum of 5 marks)

1. First point given.
2. Appropriate supporting information given.
3. Second point given.
4. Appropriate supporting information given.
5. Third point given.
6. Appropriate supporting information given.
7. Overall understanding.
8. Language. (None of the common mistakes as stated.)

II. Plot Expansion. (Maximum of 8 marks)

1. Basic description correctly given based on the short story.
2. First point given.
3. Appropriate supporting information given.
4. Second point given.
5. Appropriate supporting information given
6. Third point given.
7. Appropriate supporting information given.
8. Fourth point given.
9. Appropriate supporting information given.
10. Overall contribution of stated event/incident/occurrence/etc to the plot.
11. Writing techniques used by author given.
12. Language. (None of the common mistakes as stated.)

III. Evaluation and Understanding with Reference to the Text. (Maximum of 12 marks)

1. First point given based on story.
2. Appropriate supporting information given.
3. Second point given based on story.
4. Appropriate supporting information given.
5. Third point given based on story.
6. Appropriate supporting information given.
7. Fourth point given based on personal ideas.
8. Appropriate supporting information with reference to the text.
9. Fifth point given based on personal ideas.
10. Appropriate supporting information with reference to the text.
11. Sixth point given based on personal ideas.
12. Appropriate supporting information with reference to the text.
13. Overall understanding.
14. Language. (None of the common mistakes as stated.)

Section B (Novel), Section C (Drama), and Section D (Poetry) are all worth 25 marks each as well. The guidelines for answering are more or less the same as in Section A.

Links to short stories:


The Landlady

Harrison Bergeron

Cinderella Girl


Link to past years' Literature in English SPM papers:

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Top 10 Dropped Tamil Films We Wish Were Completed!

Sometimes a script has been written, the cast and crew have been finalized, the producers are on board and a film is announced. Then, even after part of the film has been shot, the film is dropped altogether. There can many reasons for this to happen; producers decide to back out, the cast and crew gets busy with other projects, or controversies regarding the film's story. Here are some of the most anticipated Tamil films over the years that never actually made it.

1) Jaggubhai
Director: K.S.Ravikumar
Cast: Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai

This was supposed to be the Superstar's next film after the average-grosser Baba (2002). AR Rahman was signed as the music director and the project was supposed to take off sometime in 2004. Even a photo shoot featuring Rajni in a terrorist-like look commenced and garnered much hype. However, Rajni and Aishwarya Rai became busy with Chandramukhi (2005) and Raincoat (2004) respectively while Ravikumar went on to work on Varalaru (2006). The project eventually got shelved. However, story has it that the movie was immediately dropped just after a few days of filming because the script was too similar to Baasha (1995). Ravikumar then went on and reused the name for his next movie with a different cast and script for his 2010 film with Sarath Kumar and Shriya Saran. 

2) Robo

Director: Shankar

Cast: Kamal Haasan and Preity Zinta

After completing Nayak: The Real Hero in 2001, Shankar announced his plans to direct a science fiction thriller with Kamal Haasan and Preity Zinta titled Robo. However, the film was dropped after a while as a film of that scale would require a big budget and there was an issue with funding. Shankar then moved on to work on Boys (2003). Shankar would later rewrite the script and cast Rajnikanth and Aishwarya Rai for the sci-fi blockbuster with a similar premise, Enthiran (2010). 

3) Mirattal
Director: A.R.Murugadoss

Cast: Ajith Kumar and Asin

Not to be confused with the 2012 film starring Vinay Rai, this film was originally announced in March 2004 as a revenge story with a photo shoot already taking place. This would have been Murugadoss and Ajith's second movie together after the the former's directorial debut, Dheena (2001) which earned Ajith the title 'Thala.' Yuvan Shankar Raja was signed as the music director. However the movie failed to launch after Ajith left the project due to disagreements and attempts to rope in Madhavan failed. Murugadoss then revamped the story by adding the Memento-inspired short-term memory lost aspect to it and proceeded by directing Surya in Ghajini.

4) Puli
Director: S.J.Suryah

Cast: Vijay and Simran

Taunted as S. J. Surya's dream project, this was supposed to be the director's second movie with Vijay following the highly successful Kushi (2000). However, Vijay was on the rise to become a commercial entertainer with all the formulaic masala flicks he did throughout the 2000s and this script did not fit the image he was trying to build. The project was dropped but later revived in Telugu with Pawan Kalyan. Vijay then went on to star in another film with the same title in 2015.

5) Yohan
Director: Gautham Menon

Cast: Vijay and Aishwarya Rai

This film was planned as a spy thriller revolving around a third generation NRI who joins the CIA. His father, who is a US senator has him sent abroad on a mission to pose as a local Tamilian to solve a mystery that could endanger the American people. Sounds promising right? Director Gautham even had plans on making multiple sequels with each one taking place in a different city surrounding a different mystery. Sounds promising, right? Even AR Rahman was supposed to be the music director with Menon producing it himself. Sadly, Vijay felt the film would be too radically different for his fan base to accept and dropped the film at the last moment claiming it did not suit his image. 

6) Arunachalam Vs. Chitra (AC)
Director: S.J.Surya

Cast: Simbu and Asin

The teaming up between the man behind New (2004) and Anbe Aaryire (2005), and the man behind Manmadhan (2004) and Vallavan (2006) was highly anticipated by those who enjoy these kinds of movies with mature themes. Asin was signed up as the female lead and a photo shoot also commenced. However, the delay of Vallavan apparently led SJ Surya to pursue other projects and the film was eventually shelved. 

7) Chennaiyil Oru Mazhaikkalam
Director: Gautham Menon

Cast: Trisha

The film was supposed to be an AR Rahman musical starring Trisha and four male newcomers; Nikitha, Satish Krishnan, Veera Bahu and Deva. It was supposed to be an urban film set within the IT world. However, the project was delayed and eventually canned even after more almost 40% of the filming was completed due to unknown reasons. Gautham Menon then went on to direct Vaaranam Aayiram (2008) and Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa (2010). 

8) Kettavan
Director: Simbu

Cast: Simbu and Genelia

This was supposed to be Simbu's 25th film. Initially, the script was dropped then revived again with Simbu in talks to direct it himself once Osthe (2011) was completed. The film was rumoured to be a much more intense psychological thriller than Manmadhan. However, the film appears to have been put on hold again and there is no news on if the film will be made or not. 

9) Dhruva Natchathram
Director: Gautham Menon

Cast: Surya, Asin and Daniel Balaji

Yes, Gautham Menon tops the list as the director with the most shelved projects. Initially titled Thuppariyum Anandham, this film would have been Menon and Surya's hat trick had it materialized. The film would be set both in present day Pondicherry and back when the French still ruled the territory. There are many stories on why the film was dropped. The most popular one is that Gautham had presented Surya with an uncompleted script which he could not commit to, leading him to sign up for Anjaan (2014). Another story states that the film places more importance on other characters that were allegedly supposed to be played by Simran and Parthiban, and Surya's screen time would be very limited considering his status as a leading man in the industry. This led him to leave the project.

10) Marudhayagam
Director: Kamal Hassan

Cast: Kamal Hassan, Vishnuvardhan, Nassar, Sathyaraj and Pasupathy

This film probably has been shelved the longest in this list and though rumours of it being revived always surfaces, little proof of that exists. The film was launched at a grand scale by Queen Elizabeth II herself with Her Majesty visiting the sets alongside Tamil Nadu's chief minister at the time. Problems first rose in late 1998 when a group complained that the film misinterprets their community's historical figure. Then, another group complained that the film would glamorize the main character when he is allegedly a traitor. Extensive sets built were abandoned as the number of complaints grew. The British company that was supposed to fund the film also back out after it was alleged the film might be anti-British. Most of the film's sets and props were then used for another Kaml Hassan sterrer and directorial, Hey Ram (2000) which lured much controversy as well but went on to become a critical success. Though a trailer of the film was eventually leaked online, there is no saying when filming will resume. 

11) Idhu Maalai Neerathu Mayakkam

Director: Selvaraghavan

Cast: Dhanush and Andrea Jeremiah

This film, which would have been brothers Selvaraghavan and Dhanush's next venture after Mayakkam Enna (2011) but was canned and relaunched several times. It began filming in late 2006, but was then shelved and revived in late 2008 with Dhanush and Andrea Jeremiah in the lead roles. Dhanush was alleged to sport four distinctive looks for the film depicting various stages of his life, from a school boy right up to an elderly man. However, the project was shelved for unknown reasons for the second time. Now, rumour has it that Selvaraghavan's wife, Gitanjali will be directing the remaining portions of the film, although another report stated that this is a completely original film under the same title. 

12) Madras Talkies' Untitled Project
Director: Mani Ratnam

Cast: Aishwarya Rai, Akkineni Nagarjuna and Mahesh Babu

After the mediocre Kadal (2013), Mani Ratnam was all set for a comeback with an action thriller starring his muse Aishwarya Rai and Telugu stars Akkineni Nagarjuna and Mahesh Babu. However, Babu opted out of the project and negotiations with Ram Charan failed, after he claimed that the film lacked any commercial elements. There were then reports that Nivin Pauly was approached for the project although he denied it ever happened. The film appears to have been dropped now with Mani busy filing OK Kanmani (2015) with Dulqueer Salman, Nithya Menon, Prakash Raj and Kanika.